Safe Supplements Daily Dosages

Prenatal vitamins contain higher levels of iro...
Prenatal vitamins contain higher levels of iron and folic acid, compared with typical multivitamins (Photo credit: Wikipedia)



Safe Maximum Daily Dosages


Of essential/popular vitamins, minerals and cofactors in supplements including daily values.



Vitamin A (Retinol & its esters)
1.5 mg (5,000 IU) with high dietary retinol
3.0 mg (10,000 lUI with low dietary retinol
5000 IU
Beta Carotene (synthetic or naturally derived)
25 mg for non-smokers
0 mg for smokers
3.0 mg (10,000 lUI with low dietary retinol
Vitamin D (D2 and D3) ErgocalciferolCholecalciferol
60 mcg (2,400 IU)
(Note: Vitamin D3 is The preferred form)
400 lU
Vitamin E 1073 mg as RRR-alpha-tocopherol (1600 IU) 30 lU
Vitamin K (K1 and K2)
(Phylloquinone, Phytonadione, Menaquinone)
10 mg
80 mcg
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbates)
2000 mg
60 mg
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
100 mg
1.5 mg
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
200 mg
1.7 mg
Niacinamide (Nicotinamide, B3)
1500 mg
20 mg
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid, B3)
500 mg (based on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity)
S.R. 250 mg (based on liver toxicity)
20 mg
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
100 mg
2 mg
Folic Acid 1000 mcg 400 mcg
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)
3000 mcg
6 mcg
Biotin 2500 mcg 300 mcg
Pantothenic Acid 1000 mg 10 mg


Calcium 1500 mg 1000 mg
Phosphorus 1500 mg 1000 mg
Magnesium 400 mg 400 mg
Potassium 1500 mg (500 mg up to three times daily with meals.) 

NOTE: The FDA does not allow more than 100 mg Potassium in a
suggested daily dose, even though there is no discernible scientific
justification for this arbitrary low threshold.

3500 mg
Boron 6 mg ++
Chromium (any form of trivalent Chromium)
1000 mcg
120 mcg
Copper 9 mg
(Note: Cupric Oxide is a very poorly bioavailable source
of Copper.)
2 mg
Iodine 500 mcg 150 mcg
Iron 60 mg with food
45 mg on empty stomach
18 mg
Manganese 10mg 2 mg
Molybdenum 350 mcg 75 mcg
Selenium 200 mcg 70 mcg
Zinc 30 mg
(Note: Zinc oxide is a poorly bioavailable source of Zinc.)
15 mg
ULS (2004)
Council for Responsible Nutrition’s “Upper Level for Supplements”
(Vitamin and Mineral Safety. 2nd Edition, CRN)
No ULS has been determined for Vanadium, Nickel, Silicon 

Daily Value
++ No Daily Value has been established
The safe levels for 80ron, Nickel and Vanadium have not been established.







OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 2000 mg/day*
“Risk assessment for carnitine” John N. Hathcock, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
*Acetyl Carnitine 2732 mg/day – Propionyl Carnitine 2906 mg/day
Creatine Monohydrate
OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 5 grams/day
“Risk assessment for creatine monohydrate” Andrew Shao, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
Coenzyme Q10
OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 1200 mg/day
“Risk assessment for Coenzyme Q10” John N. Hathcock, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
Lutein (all trans)
OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 20 mg/day (equal to 40 mg Lutein Esters/day) “Risk assessment for the carotenoids lutein and Iycopene”
Andrew Shao, et al
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
ULS 38 mg/day (extrapolation from animal data)
OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 75 mg/day
“Risk assessment for the carotenoids lutein and Iycopene”
Andrew Shao, et a1
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
ULS: 270 mg/day (extrapolation from animal data)
UL (Tolerable Upper Limit) – 3500 mg/day
From the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences USA.
“Dietary Reference Intakes for Folate, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin,
Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline”, Vol. 1. Washington,
DC; NatI.Acad.Press.







OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 2000 mg/day
(either the Hydrochloride or the Sulfate).
“Risk assessment for Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate”
John N. Hathcock, et al.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
Chondroitin Sulfate
OSL (Observed Safe Level) – 1200 mg/day
“Risk assessment for Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate”
John N. Hathcock, et al.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (2006)
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA)
OSL – 3000 mg/day
ULS – 3000 mg/day
“The Risk Assessment and Safety of 8ioactive Substances in Food Supplements” IADSA
+ Daily Value 

NOTE: OSL and UL levels are for adults unless otherwise indicated.



Monroe County Legislature meets to advance Secondhand dealer legislation December 10 6pm

Sorry this is last minute notice but I found out today about this very important legislation that will affect thousands of mom and pop shops and your yard sales around Rochester and in Monroe County!  We are trying to get as many people to show up and make your voice herd on this abusive legislation.

The proposed law would require dealers to get a license from the county and would apply to any Monroe County community without preexisting ordinances regulating secondhand dealers. It’d also require dealers to photograph any item they purchase

Several times NY State legislative houses have tried almost the same law proposal and it failed. Why? It was an impossible law that was
1) not enforceable by police agencies
2) a burden to police agencies – in this case it would be the Sheriff’s department
3) poorly defined the people to be covered under the law
4) poorly defined the merchandise to be covered under the law
5) created undue financial burden on small business owners – in the current proposal that’s $250 per year
6) created impossible reporting requirements that would in effect make criminals out of the business owners who must report

Nothing has been resolved in the Monroe County proposal to fix any of these problems. It will not solve crime nor help in the recovery of stolen goods. It will cause businesses to close thereby affecting a net loss to retail sales tax coming into the county.

Anyone who sells “some old jewelry” will be affected by this proposal. It is imperative to speak to your county representative about the failings of the proposed law. And plan to attend the hearing on December 10 and speak to the Legislature.

They say those dusty shelves could contain that DVD player, Xbox 360 or digital camera that thieves took from your home.

Even though some mom and  shop owners say they don’t want to stock stolen merchandise, it often cannot be avoided. That’s why Rochester wants to make finding such loot easier by imposing more rules on second-hand stores.  But what is is going to do is put more regulation and burden on small business and essentially put people out of business who can not afford to pay the taxes and fees for having yard sales or flea market sales.

The rules would subject the stores to impromptu visits from police to see what goods they have. The businesses also would be required to ask people selling or pawning items to provide a state driver’s license or passport as identification.

Store owners also would face fines for not regularly reporting what merchandise they take in, or if they don’t ask for the required information from sellers.

Such changes will not only make the hunt for stolen goods harder, but also will help discourage stores owners from hiding hot merchandise under the nose of law enforcement.

“Right now we don’t have the ability to go in and take a look at these things,” said, the city police department‘s lead crime analyst, who requested the new ordinance. The City Council has discussed it, but has yet to vote on the measure.

“If stores are purchasing stolen property, they’re not going to record it,” Meehan said. “It limits our ability to follow up.”

Four second-hand dealers and a scrap yard currently fax to police lists of the items they purchase and the names and addresses of the sellers. Despite the ease of selling on the Internet, such stores still exist — and also often sell their wares online.

But the stores often accept other forms of picture ID, such as those used to obtain government assistance. And handwriting on faxes can be incomplete or illegible, Meehan said. A new e-mail system or Internet site will be devised to receive the information costing taxpayers more money to run big government bondage police.

Albany began requiring an electronic report of merchandise from its second-hand dealers last year.

Police say the ordinance also will include a new definition of second-hand dealers that will include places like jewelry stores that buy gold jewelry and shops that purchase and sell used cell phones. They say the new rules would not apply to things like garage and tag sales or used clothing and book stores but don’t believe them they are always caught lying to we the people.

A proposed county law to regulate pawn shops, secondhand dealers, and jewelry and coin exchanges will advance to a vote by the full County Legislature.

The proposal’s sponsor has said the legislation is intended to help law enforcement officials recover stolen property.

to resell, and to submit that photo to a database operated by the sheriff’s office. Dealers would also be required to hold items for 14 days before selling them.


Legislature Meetings